pais para sempre - parents forever


Artigos sobre Síndrome da Alienação Parental

Richard A. Gardner, M.D. (1931-2003)
Dr. Richard A. Gardner is Clinical Professor of Child Psychiatry at Columbia University, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, New York, and a fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, and the American Academy of Psychoanalysis. He has published more than 40 books and more than 250 articles in a variety of areas of child psychiatry. Dr. Gardner is probably known most for his contributions in regards to Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS), which is a disorder he discovered and coined in the 1980's.

    http://www.childcustodycoach.com/pas.html#ragardner

  1. Gardner, R. A. (1985), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litigation. Academy Forum, Volume 29, Number 2, Summer, 1985, p. 3-7.New York: The American Academy of Psychoanalysis.


  2. Gardner, R. A. (1987),
    Child Custody. In Basic Handbook of Child Psychiatry, ed. J.Noshpitz, Vol. V, pp. 637- 646. New York: Basic Books, Inc.


  3. Gardner, R. A. (1987), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Judges Interviewing Children in Custody/Visitation Litigation. New Jersey Family Lawyer, Volume VII, Number 2, August/September 1987, p 26ff.


  4. Gardner, R.A. (1990), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Custody Disputes Fueling "Parental Alienation Syndrome". Family Practice News, Volume 20, Number 24, December 15-31, 1990, p 7.


  5. Gardner, R. A. (1991), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Legal and Psychotherapeutic Approaches to the three types of Parental Alienation Syndrome Families: When Psychiatry and the Law Join Forces. Court Review, Volume 28, Number 1, Sprint 1991, p 14-21.


  6. Gardner, R. A. (1994), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    The Detrimental Effects on Women of the Misguided Gender Egalitarianism of Child-Custody Dispute Resolution Guidelines. Academy Forum, Volume 38, Number 1,2 p 10-13 (Spring/Summer 1994). New York: The Publication of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis.


  7. Gardner, R. A. (1997),
    Recommendations for Dealing with Parents Who Induce a Parental Alienation Syndrome in Their Children. Issues in Child Abuse Accusations, 8(3):174-178.


  8. Gardner, R. A. (1998), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Recommendations for Dealing with Parents Who Induce a Parental Alienation Syndrome in Their Children. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 28 (3/4):1-23.


  9. Gardner, R. A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Differentiating Between The Parental Alienation Syndrome and Bona Fide Abuse and/or Neglect. American Journal of Family Therapy, 27(2):97-107.


  10. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Family Therapy of the Moderate Type of Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 27(3):195-212.


  11. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Guidelines for Assessing Parental Preference in Child-Custody Disputes. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 30(1/2):1-9.


  12. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    The Parental Alienation Syndrome ...a frequently missed diagnosis .


  13. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Definition of The Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS).


  14. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    The Parental Alienation Syndrome is NOT the Same as Programming ("Brainwashing").


  15. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    The Relationship Between The Parental Alienation Syndrome and Bona Fide Abuse and/or Neglect.


  16. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    The Parental Alienation Syndrome as a Form of Child Abuse.


  17. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    "The Parental Alienation Syndrome does not exist Because it is Not in DSM-IV".


  18. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    "The Parental Alienation Syndrome is not a Syndrome".


  19. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    "People Who Diagnose Parental Alienation Syndrome are Sexist".


  20. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    "The Parental Alienation Syndrome and Sex-Abuse Accusations".


  21. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    "The Parental Alienation Syndrome and Sex-Abuse Accusations".


  22. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    The Parental Alienation Syndrome and "Parental Alienation".


  23. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Differential Diagnosis of the Three Types of Parental Alienation Syndrome.


  24. Gardner, R.A. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Differential Treatment of the Three Types of Parental Alienation Syndrome.


  25. Gardner, R.A. (2001), ( .html )
    The Parental Alienation Syndrome: Sixteen Years Later . Academy Forum, 2001, 45(1):10-12. New York: A Publication of The American Academy of Psychoanalysis


  26. Gardner, R.A. (2001), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Should Courts Order PAS Children to Visit/Reside with the Alienated Parent? A Follow-up Study. American Journal of Forensic Psychology. 19(3):61-106. Abstract and Article Excerpts ( .html ).


  27. Gardner, R.A. (2001), ( .html )
    Comments on Carol S. Bruch’s Article "Parental Alienation Syndrome and Parental Alienation: Getting it Wrong in Child Custody Cases". Family Law Quarterly, 35(3):527-552, 2001


  28. Gardner, R.A. (2002) , ( .html )
    The Role of the Judiciary in the Entrenchment of the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS).


  29. Gardner, R.A. (2002), ( .html )
    Response to Kelly/Johnston Article. Speak Out for Children (a publication of the Children's Rights Council), 17(2):6-10, 2002.


  30. Gardner, R.A. (2002), ( .html )
    Sollten Gerichte anordnen, daß an PAS leindende Kinder den antfremdeten Elternteil besuchen bzw. bei ihm wohnen? In: Das elterliche Entfremdungssyndrom. Anregungen für gerichtliche Sorge- und Umgangsregelungen. Berlin: Verlag für Wissenschaft und Bildung, pp.23-95.


  31. Gardner, R.A. (2002), ( .html )
    The Empowerment of Children in the Development of Parental Alienation Syndrome. The American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 20(2):5-29, 2002.


  32. Gardner, R.A. (2002) , ( .html )
    Parental Alienation Syndrome vs. Parental Alienation: Which Diagnosis Should Evaluators Use in Child-Custody Disputes?. The American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(2):93-115, (2002).


  33. Gardner, R.A. (2002), ( .html )
    Denial of the Parental Alienation Syndrome Also Harms Women. American Journal of Family Therapy, 30(3):191-202 (2002).


  34. Gardner, R.A. (2002), ( .html )
    Does DSM-IV Have Equivalents for the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) Diagnosis? American Journal of Family Therapy, 31(1):1-21.


  35. Gardner, R.A. (2003), ( .html )
    The Judiciary's Role in the Etiology, Symptom Development, and Treatment of The Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS). American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 21(1):39-64.


  36. Gardner, R.A. (2003, in press), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    The Three Levels of Parental Alienation Syndrome Alienators.


  37. Gardner, R.A. (2003),
    The Parental Alienation Syndrome: Past, Present, and Future. In The Parental Alienation Syndrome: An Interdisciplinary Challenge for Professionals Involved in Divorce., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 89-125. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.


  38. Gardner, R.A. (2003),
    How Denying and Discrediting the Parental Alienation Syndrome Harms Women., eds. W. von Boch-Gallhau, U. Kodjoe, W Andritsky, and P. Koeppel, pp. 121-142. Berlin, Germany: VWB-Verlag für Wissenshaft and Bildung.


  39. Gardner R.A. (2003, in press),
    The Relationship Between the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) and the False Memory Syndrome (FMS).
  40. Gardner. R.A. (2004, in press),
    The Parental Alienation Syndrome and the Corruptive Power of Anger.

          THE INTERNATIONAL HANDBOOK OF PARENTAL ALIENATION SYNDROME: Conceptual, Clinical and Legal Considerations

Dr. Richard Gardner has put together a list of approximately 177 articles, many of which appear on this website, related to the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS), which have been published or accepted for publication in peer-review journals and published books. To view the list of articles, click here.

Dr. Richard Gardner has also put together a list of various resources related to Parental Alienation Syndrome, many of which appear within this website. To view the list of resources, click here.

To Learn more about Dr. Richard Gardner, visit the Creative Therapeutics website.
To view the Creative Therapeutics website, click here.

 


Douglass Darnall, Ph.D.
Dr. Douglas Darnall is a practicing licensed psychologist and the CEO of PsyCare, Inc., an outpatient psychiatric clinic in Youngstown, Ohio. He is the author of DIVORCE CASUALTIES: PROTECTING YOUR CHILDREN FROM PARENTAL ALIENATION (Taylor Publishing Company, 1998).
 

  1. Darnall, D. (1999), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Parental Alienation: Not in the Best Interest of the Children. North Dakota Law Review, Volume 75, 1999, p 323-364.

"Many parents hope for a magic potion to solve the problems of alienation. Sadly, no such potion exists.
For the time being, education, early recognition, prevention, expedient litigation, visitations centers, and qualified high conflict family therapists are our best home for helping children and their parents.
To reduce the number of casualties, there will need to be legislative reform founded on good research, validated intervention protocols for alienated children and parents, changes in social or sexist attitudes, and qualified interventionists.
Though change is slow, legislators across the county are taking another look at what is happening in the courts. There continues to be an uneasy feeling that something is wrong and the system could better serve families. In-formed attorneys and judges, however, can help improve the system.
"

To Learn more about Dr. Douglass Darnall, visit the PsyCare website.
To view the PsyCare website, click here.



Jayne A. Major, Ph.D.
Dr. Jayne A. Major is internationally known and recognized as an expert on family and parenting education, as a dynamic and inspiring speaker, and author and consultant on optimal family relationships. Dr. Major has trained more than 15,000 parents over the last 19 years in psychologically sound techniques that promote happy, cooperative, and self-disciplined children.
 

  1. Major, J. A. (1999, in press), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Parents Who Have Successfully Fought Parental Alienation Syndrome. Aspen Family Law Journal.
  2. Major, J. A. (2002, full version), ( .html )
    Parents Who Have Successfully Fought Parental Alienation Syndrome. This very informative and helpful article is believed to be the most widely read PAS article on the web.
  3. Major, J. A. (2002), ( .html )
    Divorce Fallout / Parental Alienation Syndrome. What it is. How it happens and what you can do about it..
  4. Major, J. A. (2002), ( .html )
    How Parents can deal with Parental Alienation Syndrome. Materials that have helped many parents going through Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS)..

To Learn more about Dr. Jayne A. Major and her services, visit the Breakthrough Parenting website.
To view the Breakthrough Parenting website, click here.



Ira Daniel Turkat, Ph.D.
Dr. Ira Daniel Turkat, is the chief psychologist at Venice Hospital in Florida, and is on the clinical faculty of the University of Florida College of Medicine. He maintains a private practice in Venice, Florida.
 

  1. Turkat, I. D. (1993), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Questioning the Mental Health Expert's Custody Report. American Journal of Family Law, Volume 7, 175-179.
     
  2. Turkat, I. D. (1994), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Child Visitation Interference in Divorce. Clinical Psychology Review, 14(8):737-742.
     
  3. Turkat, I. D. (1995), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Divorce Related Malicious Mother Syndrome. Journal of Family Violence, 10(3):253-264.
     
  4. Turkat, I. D. (1996), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Relocation as a Strategy to Interfere with the Child-Parent Relationship. American Journal of Family Law, (11): 39-41.
     
  5. Turkat, I. D. (1997), ( .html ) ( .pdf )
    Management of Visitation Interference. The Judges Journal, 36:2:17-47.

Recolha efectuada por: susanne.gehring@gmx.de

Barden, R. C. (2003),
Building Multi-Disciplinary Legal-Scientific Teams in PAS and Child Custody Cases, in: Boch-Galhau, W. von/Kodjoe, U./Andritzky, W./Koeppel, P.: (Hrsg.): ebd.: 373 – 381

Bruch, Carol S. (2001), Parental Alienation Syndrome: Getting it Wrong in Child Custody Cases, in: Family Law Quarterly 35 (3): 527 – 552

Burrill, J. (2002), Parental Alienation Syndrome in Court Referred Custody Cases, A Dissertation Presented to the Graduate Faculty of the College of Behavioral Sciences Northcentral University.

Feinberg, Joy M. / Loeb, Lori S. (1994), CUSTODY AND VISITATION INTERFERENCE: ALTERNATIVE REMEDIES, AAML Journal, Winter 1994, Volume 12, Number 2, p 271-284 publication of the American Academy of Matrimonial Lawyers

Finkelstein, C. (2003), The Heart of an Abducted and Alienated Child/ Das Herz eines entführten und entfremdeten Kindes/ Sarah or Cecilie – The Identity Issue; In: Boch-Galhau, W. von/Kodjoe, U./Andritzky, W./Koeppel, P. (Hrsg.): ebd.: 175 – 185

Finkelstein, C. (2003), PAS Perspectives: An Adult, Parentally Abducted and Alienated as a Child, Reflects on Current PAS Treatment Modules, in: Boch-Galhau, W. von/Kodjoe, U./Andritzky, W./Koeppel, P.: (Hrsg.): ebd.: 373 – 381

Hellblom Sjögren, Lena (2003), Making a Parent Dangerous – PAS in Sweden and Norway, in: Boch-Galhau, W. von/Kodjoe, U./Andritzky, W./Koeppel, P.: (Hrsg.): ebd.:  235 – 248

Lund, Mary (1995) A Therapist's View of Parental Alienation Syndrome, Family and  Conciliation Courts Review, Vol. 33 No. 3, July 1995 308-316

Stuart-Mills-Hoch, P. / Hoch, R. (2003), Successful Reintegration of Severely Alienated Children and Their Parents, in: Boch-Galhau, W. von/Kodjoe, U./Andritzky, W./Koeppel, P.: (Hrsg.): ebd.: 353 – 365

Warshak, R. A. (2003), Current Controversies Regarding the Parental Alienation Syndrome; In: Boch-Galhau, W. von/Kodjoe, U./Andritzky, W./Koeppel, P. (Hrsg.): ebd.: 207 – 233


Parental Alienation Syndrome in the "Scientific Community"

General Acceptance of PAS in the Scientific Community
 

In 1985, Richard Gardner first described and defined what the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) is, in an article, Recent Trends in Divorce and Custody Litigation. Since then, PAS has continued to gain Acceptance in the "Scientific Community".

In the United States, many states have adopted The Frye Test as the standard by which a court can determine whether a scientific contribution has gained enough general acceptance in the Scientific Community to be admissible in a court of law.

Other States have adopted ether The Daubert Test as their standard, or have substituted their own standards and thus, have their own "test".

In Canada, The Mohan Test is applied to assess admissibility. It is more stringent than The Frye Test in that it employs more criteria than Frye.

Some cases where the Court Rulings that the Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) has gained general acceptance in the Scientific Community and thereby satisfies The Frye Test criteria or The Mohan Rulings criteria for admissibility are listed below.

  1. Gardner, R. A. (2003), ( .html )
    Court Rulings Specifically Recognizing the Parental Alienation Syndrome in the US and Internationally.
     
  2. Kilgore v. Boyd (Jan. 30, 2001), ( .html )
    Kilgore v. Boyd (Excerpt taken from transcript of Frye Test hearing), Circuit Court of the 13th Judicial Circuit of the State of Florida, Hillsborough County, Family Law Division. Case no. 94-7573, Div. D), Jan 30, 2001. The Court Rules that the PAS satisfies The Frye Test criteria for admissibility.
     
  3. Bates v. Bates (Jan. 17, 2002), ( .html )
    Bates v. Bates (Excerpt taken from transcript of Frye Test hearing), 18th Judicial Circuit, Dupage County, IL Case No. 99D958, Jan. 17, 2002. The Court Rules that the PAS satisfies The Frye Test criteria for admissibility.
     
  4. Her Majesty the Queen vs. K.C. Superior Court of Justice (Aug. 9, 2002),
    Ontario, County of Durham, Central-East Region, Court File No. 9520/01. Aug 9, 2002. The Court Rules that the PAS satisfies The Mohan Test criteria for admissibility.

What is Parental Alienation or PA?

According to Dr. Gardner, Parental Alienation (PA) is a more general term, whereas the Parental Alienation Syndrome is a very specific subtype of Parental Alienation. Parental Alienation has many causes, e.g., parental neglect, abuse (physical, emotional, and sexual), abandonment, and other alienating parental behaviors. All of these behaviors on the part of a parent can produce Alienation in the children.

Parental Alienation Syndrome (PAS) vs. Parental Alienation (PA)
The Parental Alienation Syndrome is a specific subcategory of Parental Alienation that results from a combination of (1) parental programming ("brainwashing") and (2) the child's own contributions, and it is almost exclusively seen in the context of child-custody disputes.

As Dr. Douglass Darnall points out, Parental Alienation focuses on the parents behavior, whereas the Parental Alienation Syndrome focuses on the child's behavior and the child's unjustifiable campaign of denigration towards target parent.


pais para sempre - parents forever João Mouta
Presidente da
"Pais Para Sempre
Associação para a Defesa
dos Filhos de Pais Separados
"